Disability Discrimination: Finding Help

Finding specialist legal help for disability discrimination is becoming harder.
Finding specialist legal help for disability discrimination is becoming harder.

Since the introduction of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and then the consolidation of disability discrimination legislation into the Equality Act 2010, there is still an emerging need to develop the legal sector which provides a functioning market for disability related legal services. The issues of disability are of course cross-cutting such as welfare, housing, services, premises, employment, participation in public life and representation of the disability community as equal stakeholders across the public sector service and it's delivery functions.

According to the Office of Disability Issues (ODI), 16.7% of the UK adult population that being 10.7 million persons live with an impairment or health issue, but members of the community with a disability are highly unlikely to be represented with any degree equity in a broad range of community or public life: councillors, members of parliament, public appointments, judiciary, NHS trusts, health boards in the devolved parliaments, public spending programmes, or civil service. It's a muted point generally in the media and there is passive acceptance that under representation of disabled persons in public life is a consequence of the kind the of society that that the remaining 83.3% of the community wishes to live. Much the same history of race and gender equality repeating itself.

The rights and enforcement of those entitlements are further undermined by the recent changes to Employment Tribunals to introduce fees for bringing claims for unlawful disability discrimination. Some assessments say that the reduction of disability discrimination claims have fallen since this change from this policy and practice by between 52% and 78%. There continues to be an historic link between poverty and disability which bares out in the huge decline in protection sought from the courts. The change in policy and the well established link between poverty, unemployment and disability in fact renders the advances made by the Equality Act 2010 and it's predecessor the Disability Discrimination Act relatively obsolete on affordability grounds. There is no public funding for bringing disability discrimination cases. The situation is of course different in USA and some Northern European countries, Scotland has made a little progress in providing legal help for preparing litigation at Employment Tribunals but there is no publicly funded legal representation. Disability litigation is won on strength and merits of argument. Legal representation is the only moral and ethical way to enforce a disabled persons rights.

As Andrew Hogan points out in his blog there is an emerging market for litigating disability discrimination. Mr. Hogan points out that new business models and disability claims show promising potential to develop county court tort actions or high court tort actions, or high court judicial review in the field of disability discrimination. His work includes claims brought for disabled persons accessing buses, trains, local authority services, NHS trusts, Central Goverment Departments and universities. It demonstrates the potential for increasing the disability litigation market sector following the reductions in publicly funded assistance and the effects of the Jackson reforms as discussed by the Law Society.

In fact, a legal firm Unity-Law are a team of specialist Disability Discrimination and occupational disease lawyers, dedicated to helping you achieve the best possible outcome for your legal case. We particularly note "Our personal approach has led us to win a number legal industry awards which recognise our involvement in leading cases and ground-breaking disability rights campaign work. "

There a number of barristers specialising in disability discrimination claims with direct access arrangements. You may also need to consider instructing a solicitor to help with the litigation but the barrister can give you advise and you proceed with stages of litigation yourself. There are funding issues to resolve. You need to engage a barrister directly on the issues of funding.

The following barristers specialise in disability -

Andrew Hogan is a disability barrister at Ropewalk Chambers.

Spencer Keen is a barrister specialising in disability discrimination at Old Square Chambers

Matthew Purchase is a barrister specialising in disability discrimination at Matrix Chambers.

Elizabeth George is a barrister specialising in discrimination at Leigh Day

Disability Counsel are a group of barristers who specialise in disability discrimination

The charitable and social enterprise Disability Discrimnation legal sector is generally under funded and over subscribed. This includes charities such as the Disability Law Service, the Bar Pro Bono Unit, the Free Representation Unit and Law Works. The RNIB provides a small legal team dealing with disability discrimination matters arising from visual impairment. There is also the Law Centre Network. Charitable and public funding severely restrict the extent of any help these enterprises can provide.

Disabled law graduates wishing to pursue a career as a barrister or solicitor are substantially disadvantaged in accessing training as a barrister's pupil and or accessing training contracts to qualify as a solicitor. A disabled law graduate wishing to pursue a career as a barrister has no other pathway to obtain the required competency and knowlege requirements of the Bar Standards Board. Successive governments have attempted to open up the legal training market to increase access to the Bar and subsequent legislation allowed for training to get to the commercial bar using a Bar Standards. Board approved alternative training organisation. No such routes exist and the access to pupilages are very far and few between.

However, the Law Society has recognised the potential of the charitable and social enterprise sector to engaged law graduate is trainng which can lead to their eventual qualification as a solicitor. Careers can then be pursued in the social enterprise sector or transferred to the private or public sector. There are no equivalent mechanisms to obtain qualification as a practicing barrister.

The legal services market has changed with some law firms and barristers operating from the same commercial entity. This brings future opportunities and Elizabeth George at Leigh Day is a positive example.

Community interest Companies (CIC)

The Equality Advisory Support Service (EASS) was the first discrimination advisory community interest company set up which provides free advise and support disabled persons facing discrimination. A community interest company requires that the assets of the company are locked in the community it serves and it has to fulfil its community interest test. Community Interest Companies have an independent regulator.

The Creation of a Disability Discriminaton Law Service Community Interest Company

Andrew Hogan's analysis of the emerging disability discrimination litigation market seems to be logically signficant. More houses are being built to a poorer standard. The Government are moving 2 million disabled persons from long term sickness benefit to work without any supporting social, legal or employment infrastructure to cater for individual bespoke needs. More public transport facilities are being built and lessons of accessibility are simply never learned. According to the ODI the disabled population is growing by 100,000 per year which will increase litigation year on year in housing, employment, welfare, transport, public authority services, education, and the NHS. We know that 11.7 million people are statutory disabled in the UK and we know that there is no underlying strategic legal service market to enforce disability rights under the Equality Act.

The regulators of the Legal Profession: the Law Society and The Bar Council need to be persuaded that in the longer term more community interest companies will want to be set up which competes with the traditional network of chambers and law firms to create a cost effective legal services market for litigating disability discrimination claims. The kind of models described by Hogan et al provide exactly the rationale for allowing the creation of a Disability Discrimination Law Community Interest Company run by disabled persons busines persons, financiers, social enterprises or philanthropy; and the like employing disabled barristers or solicitors to litigate in the disability community or public interest. This innovative form of social enterprise could quite easily be approved by the Bar Standards Board as an alternative training organisation to enable many more disabled law graduates to qualify in the profession for the public good.

Community Interest Companies can make profits and are lightly regulated. The legal professional standards would remain. CICs can obtain private capital, borrow, pay salaries, pay dividends, float on the stock market, receive charitable donations, philanthropic investment, local authority funding and public funding. Two signficant differences are that the assets accumulated by the CIC will be locked into the disability community it serves to fulfil its community interest objectives principally to provide advice and representation at an affordable cost to the disability community. Secondly, there will be strategic value to development and performance of disability discrimination litigation and a competitive market against the relatively fixed market of chambers and law firms proving a Cinderella disability litigation service.. There would also likely follow a restructuring of the social and charitable enterprise sector providing legal help . Lastly, as well seeking new innovative funding models, there would be opportunities to charge basic operating fees for clients much below market rates along the lines of Stephenson Solicitors albeit on a structurally different basis to cover basic operation costs. In other words disabled barristers or solicitors basic salaries would be paid to enable them to litigate higher volumes of work and rewarded on the merits of their success through the traditional cost or compensation recovery. Finally, there is no current market concept for mutuality disability discrimination insurance which could be devised with a community interest company product along side traditional event or costs insurance.

The disability discrimination litigation market place

Interchangeability of jurisdiction of the Employment Tribunal Claim and Claims issued at County Courts or the High Court for claims under tort or Judicial Review at the High Court. Employment Trubunal claims can include a head of damage for injury to health arising from the conduct of disability discrimination or a failure in that duty which causes injury. In the alternative, can such claims be brought at the County or High Court as personal injury claims with duties owed in tort, statutory duties or other common law. Additionally, to what extent can can employment related disability discrimination claims have jurisdiction in the County or High court under section 149 of the Equality Act either as a specific remedy or Judicial Review. Does further changes need to be made to the Equality Act 2010 to develop the disability discrimination market, to enable cross jurisdiction claims and engage injury to health claims identified in Employment Trubunal Claims in a jurisdiction that enables access to Conditional Funding Arrangements, costs insurance protection and the development of forms of mutuality insurance that (I) enables a disability discrimination litigation insurance product to be market developed, offered and subscribed to increase enforcement of rights under the Equality Act; (ii) to benefit from the Jackson Reforms and use of injury to health head of damage as a basis of constituting disability discrimination claims in other jurisdictions which enables forms of mutuality insurance as described or with broader ranges of legal service funding based on successful recovery of costs and risk-bases earnings from compensation. The Office of Disability Issues say there is a disability discrimination market place of 11.8 million people of which 5.2m people are of working age, families have 1.1m disabled children at school and 5m over the age of 65. 2.6m of those disabled persons are in work or in work claiming benefits and the other 2.6m people claim welfare benefits. The welfare reform programme will lead to a reduction of people claiming disability related employment income benefit reduce by 65% in the next 5 years. This will means that around 1.4m disabled person will be expected to engage in work or claim unemployment benefit. The abolition of disability living allowance and replacement with personal independence payment is likely to reduce the 3m disabled persons claiming benefit over a period of 10 years to around 1.5m on the basis of only 40% of existing DLA qualifying claims are being equivalicated in the decisions of personal independence payments claims so far.

Legal aid has been withdrawn for welfare claims advise and representation.

A reform of the way disability welfare legal services and disability discrimination litigation can be achieved by a two way strategy; (I) by legislation to create, structure and regulate the market; (ii) by the disability community enterprise sector devising appropriate legal service structure and offering innovate mutuality insurance products that provide legal cover for:

Making claims for disability related benefits

Providing disability related legal advise services

Providing legal advice representation for appeals on disability related welfare decisions

Providing disability advice and professional recommendations of reasonable adjustments

Providing disability discrimination for employment, education, services etc. disputes early intervention advise and advocacy

Making claims for disability discrimination litigation

Providing disability litigation legal advise services

Providing disability litigation end to end claim and customer relationship management

Providing disability litigation legal representation services

Provide mutuality based legal costs and events insurance to limit damages

Provide disability litigation professional services functions including experts

Operate the mutuality principle as a community interest where the product assets are locked in the disability community for future generations but legal professionals can continue to be paid at market rates based on a mixed-fee orientation policy. The policy to comprise of an element of contract payment rate for work from the mutuality policy, recovery of costs in the courts, enhancement of income based on risk and success and a level of operational costs recovery from policy excesses depending on the nature and extent of the work.

A working research paper will be produced in due course based on a range of mutuality models, comparative historical funding issues in other community problems arising from poverty and community interest principals which specifically develop the disability law market.

Legislative analysis is required to better define the regulatory framework, increase flexibility in the legal profession for developing this market and to learn from other jurisdictions on how to limit the liabilities of a social legal market which is either provided by State funding or where a jurisdiction accepts that for the market to function properly then stakeholder exposure to liability has to be signficantly constrained reasonable social financing rather than the excesses of the corporate legal sector profitability much the same as legal aid recovery of costs.

In any of the models used there would be an increase in those insured, increase in litigation and consequential social mobility, and market improvement for disability discrimination litigation practice and performance.

Any further thoughts are welcome.

Disability And Home Improvements

Is your property helping you fulfil your life chances as a disabled person?
Is your property helping you fulfil your life chances as a disabled person?

Disabled Facilities Grant

You could get a grant from your council if you’re disabled and need to make changes to your home, for example to:

widen doors and instal ramps

improve access to rooms and facilities - eg stairlifts or a downstairs bathroom

provide a heating system suitable for your needs

adapt heating or lighting controls to make them easier to use

A Disabled Facilities Grant will not affect any benefits that you’re getting.

Click here for further information. A detailed outline can be found here.

Home improvements

A local authority can offer different types of help with home improvements. It will have its own rules about the types of help it will offer, and about the conditions you must meet in order to qualify for help.

By law, these rules must not discriminate against you because of your age, disability, gender reassignment, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex or sexual orientation. In addition, a local authority may have policies which don't allow other types of discrimination such as discrimination against older people.

To find out if you can get help with home improvements and the help available in your area, contact your local authority. Your local authority can give you help to:-

• adapt, improve, or repair your home. This could be in the form of a grant or loan. It could be by providing labour, tools, or cheap materials to help you carry out the work. It could be by providing details of builders who can carry out the work, or by providing free or low cost surveys, or advice on carrying out repairs; or

• buy a new home if it decides that this would be a better way of improving your living conditions than carrying out work on your current home. The help could be in the form of a grant or loan; or

• buy a new home, if it has decided to buy your current home. The help could be in the form of a grant or loan; or

• demolish your home, or build a new home for you, if your previous home has been demolished.

The help could be in the form of a grant or loan.

Click here for home improvements in England.

Click here for home improvements in Scotland.

Click here for home improvements in Wales.

Click here for home improvements in Northern Ireland.

Finally click here for information on the energy saving trust and the green deal. FREE help and advice

For independent, expert advice on saving energy in your home, call our helpline!

• Monday to Friday 9am to 8pm

• Saturday 10am to 2pm

0300 123 1234

 – all you pay for is a national rate call.

NHS Disability Help

The NHS A to Z on living with a Disability
The NHS A to Z on living with a Disability

Click here for NHS information on living with a disability.

You can get help on:

Information and help for carers

Benefits you may be entitled to

Find a home improvement agency

Get help find a job

Apply for a carer's assessment

Financial support if you or your child is disabled

They provide tools for screening and carers.

They provide help pages on the following disability topics:

Life with a disability

Fitness advice for wheelchair users

Weight loss for wheelchair users

Managing weight loss with a learning disability

Adjusting to disability

Work and disability

Help for disabled parents

Life stories of disabled persons'

Caring for older relatives

A guide for disabled festival-goers

Nuance Disability Tools

Accessibility tools and more
Accessibility tools and more

Developing a disability is a life changing event and can often leave you having difficulty with mobility, manual dexterity, sight, hearing or an inability to use your hands which we often use to work.

Nuance provide a well developed range of products which includes Dragon Speak which also your computer application to capture content from speaking into a head set. Andrew Marr the BBC presenter recently started using assistive technology since suffering a stroke.

Omnipage provides a high quality optical character recognition facility which enables document which exist in paper format to be converted into text and pictures for use in a word processor like MS Word.

Swype replaces the on-screen keyboard for smartphones and tablets, and with one continuous motion across the screen, its patented technology enables users to input words faster and easier.Swype users can now opt in to stay up to date with trending words like "Gangnam Style". Swype’s Living Language feature gathers and updates user dictionaries with the latest global trending words by crowd-sourcing the language. Go to Swype Settings > Language Options and enable "Living language" to be in the know. Swype’s Next Word Prediction is so intelligent it’s as if Swype could read your mind. The most powerful personal language model on the market trains your device to learn your unique vocabulary and predict your words based on previous usage. Dragon's world-renowned voice recognition capability lets you go hands free and turns your voice into text quickly and accurately with a simple press of the Dragon flame. And if you also happen to be a Dragon Mobile Assistant, simply Swype from the Swype Key to the Dragon Flame on the keyboard and... voilà! Your personal mobile assistant is at your command.

Paperport Document Management Software and Scanning Solutions. PaperPort Professional 14 is the most productive and cost effective way for everyone in your office to scan, organise, find and share all of your documents including paper, PDF, application files and photographs. PaperPort Professional combines the efficiency of document management, the convenience of advanced scanning capabilities and the power of PDF document creation and assembly to simplify information sharing and archiving.

Dragon Drive messaging productivity on the road. With Dragon Drive! Messaging in your BMW you can dictate text messages and emails on the road – conveniently, safely and all just using your voice. Do you have your best brainwaves in your car? Do you want to be productive on the road? Use the communicating potential of Dragon Drive! Messaging in your BMW. State of the art technology allows you to simply dictate your message. Climb aboard and stay connected: Communicate with colleagues or customers, write meeting protocols, arrange to meet friends – or just say hell. Always safe, always convenient.

Disability Culture

Go to bipolarworld.net
Go to bipolarworld.net

The Royal Academy of Arts are running a programme for disability audiences which is wide ranging and reaches out to the disability community in different forms and expression. Click here to find out more. Enjoy.

Disability Culture is a widely used concept developed in the late 1980s to capture differences in lifestyle that are caused or promoted by disability. The cultures include art movements, coalitions, and include but not limited to: dance, poetry, performance pieces, installments and sculptures.Steven Brown, in an academic study, wrote, "The existence of a disability culture is a relatively new and contested idea Not surprising, perhaps, for a group that has long been described with terms like 'in-valid', 'impaired', 'limited', 'crippled', and so forth.

Disability culture cannot be defined by one specific description or language. It is a complex blending of art, performance, expression, and community. Within this culture, the word "disabled" has been re-purposed to represent a social identity of empowerment and awareness. Like many civil rights movements in the past, disability culture challenges the norms of society, and seeks to counter oppressive entities such as medicalization and institutionalization. Its core values as a culture are reflected in art, conversation, goals, or behaviors. These core values often include: "an acceptance of human differences, an acceptance of human vulnerability and interdependence, a tolerance for a lack of resolution of the unpredictable in life, and a humor to laugh at the oppressor or situation, however dire it may be.

Click here to give you insight in to disability culture. Click here for a list of links into the disability social history projects. Click here for a list of disability cultural studies.

Using Technology As An Enabler

Delivering accessibility
Delivering accessibility

Abilitynet is an excellent example of a disability organisation who help and promote the use of technology to disabled persons to enable them learn, work and personally benefit from using technology. Click here to access their website to look at the range of help they offer.

Creating Your Own Living Educational Theory Of Disability

Collaborative forms of research working with people rather than working on them.
Collaborative forms of research working with people rather than working on them.

Action research methods for research involving disabled persons has historically been viewed as researching disabled issues or persons rather than being disability lead research or working colloboratively with disabled persons to make research. An example of using learning to create your own educational theory can be found here and here for an example of learning from action.

Regardless of how you theorise the development of disability research or studies, there are expectations that disability studies should be emancipatory or colloboratively in nature. There are academic debates about the extent of the role of the researcher and the participants and exactly how the relationship should be conducted. One thing is for sure, in modern action research philosophy there is an emphasis on working with disabled persons rather than working on them. There is a substantial body of educational action research methods and tools which seeks to enable disabled persons to use their unique position to develop their own living educational theories and making it public to enable a growth of personalised knowledge available for social learning.

With the use of easy access e-publishing, there is greater potential to publish your research and writing on a particular issue or subject through apple iBooks, amazon Kindle and others.

Save for institutions such as the Centre for Disability Studies at the University of Leeds, there is a grevious shortage of disability related research and writing. Click here to access the Centre's web page for further information. The Disability Press can be found here and contains a number of publications written by contributors with a disability. An example of research conducted by a process of Human Inquiry through development of human psychology theory can be found here

Writing Your Own Blog Or Website

Why not develop your skills and write your own contribution to topical issue
Why not develop your skills and write your own contribution to topical issue

With the web developing so many social media outlets and facilities to record your thoughts, stories or contributions to help people; why not try developing and publishing your own personal blog or website. Perhaps you have some skills to use or develop products which other people might benefit from your own expertise.

Twitter and Facebook can be used to communicate with a wide range of people on a broad set of subjects or issues. You can connect twitter, Facebook, web pages and blogging so that you can develop content over time and communicate with people with an interest.

You can experiment with multimedia tools such developing graphics, videos and voice to develop your blogging content. It could be a video clip which is educational or develops a message on a view that you want to make.

Blogs can be written by downloading a website template or using a facility like Wordpress. You can link twitter, Facebook, YouTube and your blog colloboratively. Simpl.com provides a user friendly interface to produce a blog or personal web page.

It's your content: you decide.

LabCorp Genetic Health Tests

"The more you know about your DNA, the more you know about yourself"
"The more you know about your DNA, the more you know about yourself"

23ANDME provides genetic testing facilities without the need to be referred by a medical practitioner. It can give you detailed feedback on your genetic ancestry, inheritable health conditions, carrier status, health risks, drug responses, health tools and of course arms you with information to discuss colloboratively with your doctor on the management of your health. There are of course implications of genetic testing and these types of issues are discussed by visiting the LabCorp here to view their services and disclaimers.

British Airways: Leading The Way In Disability Assistance

Pre-arrange your help to and from your destination, sit back and enjoy the experience
Pre-arrange your help to and from your destination, sit back and enjoy the experience

British Airways provides a pre-planned extensive service to assist disabled persons with accessibility and assistance with accessing airport facilities, flying and decanting from airplanes. Disabled persons consistently state that BA are the gold standard for travelling internationally by flight with a disability. That's our experience too.

Disabilty And Learning: Remote Learning Through Coursea Or Futurelearn

Learning for everyone
Learning for everyone

A unique opportunity for disabled persons to access remote and distance learning on a broad range of courses for free. The course are delivered via the Internet from top universities from the UK, USA and other countries committed to developing knowledge and learning skills. Take a look at the courses by clicking here to access their courses website. The UK offers a similar learning experience, by clicking here can see what's on offer.

Taking a little time of your own back to develop your skills and knowledge helps with training, employment and job retention. It's a positive experience and your investing your time in your development and your prospects.

Good luck!

Dr Sarah Myhill: Take Control Of Your Own Life

"Start with your very good health"
"Start with your very good health"

Dr Myhill brings a breath of fresh air in promoting people to take control of their own health.

To visit Dr Myhill's website please click here

Raspberry PI: The Disability Challenge

Raspberry PI university of Cambridge
Raspberry PI university of Cambridge

The great new launch of the Raspberry PI by the University of Cambridge and partners to promote the development of knowledge and skill in the basics of computer engineering.

We are encouraging disabled persons to join in the challenge and come up with technology and applications which promote positive learning outcomes for disabled persons to share and enjoy.

The Raspberry PI project can be found by clicking here

Take a look at this project concerning developing medical technology and applications to monitor key medical conditions and build the products yourself. Let us know how you get on.

Click here

These are educational development projects and you should read the disclaimers.

The about section gives a friendly idea in to the vision of Raspberry PI. The potential is huge.

Click here for an example of a Raspberry PI disability related project.

Your Employment And Disability

Look out for the two ticks scheme
Look out for the two ticks scheme

Persons with disabilities have the same employment rights as any other employees although it is likely that their employer will be less familiar with the particular problems encountered by their illness. Clearly individual circumstances differ, but your specialist should be able to advise your employer on your ‘fitness to work'. It may be that in response to illness your employer offers you an alternative job. Again, it may be advisable to discuss the suitability of such employment with your medical specialist and also with disability employment advisers (DEAs). You can find out more about DEAs at [http://www.jobcentreplus.gov.uk].

Alternatively your health may prevent you from doing any suitable job with your employer. In that situation they should be able to advise you with regard to the level of private health insurance or critical cover they provide.

Choosing a career is very much up to the individual, but your medical adviser may offer advice for example: such as that heavy physical work in hot conditions should be avoided, avoid lifting or bending, specific respiratory disease. Many patients with long term debilitating illness are likely to experience weakness as their disease progresses and this could severely limit their ability to perform heavy physical activities.

The other consideration is whether the job requires physical adaption to the workplace in order for you to perform it (eg. MINICOM, large screen, visual impairment equipment or software, seating, rest breaks).

You may be able to get specific advise in relation to your employment retention or pursuing your career from the list of disability organisations who can help or the section 'Help in employment'.

Help In Employment

An Access to Work grant is money for practical support to help you do your job. It’s for people with a disability, health or mental health condition.

The money you get can pay for things like:

specialist equipment

travel when you can’t use public transport

a communicator at a job interview

How much you get depends on your circumstances. It’s only available in England, Scotland and Wales.

There is no set amount for an Access to Work grant. How much you get depends on your circumstances.

The money can pay for things like:

adaptations to the equipment you use

special equipment

a support worker or job coach to help you in your workplace

fares to work if you’re unable to use public transport

disability awareness training for your colleagues

a communicator at a job interview

Click here to take you to access to work.

Disability Book Reviews: Sources Of Help

To follow soon.

The Blue Badge, The White Badge And Concessionary Travel

Blue badge accessing mobility through help with parking
Blue badge accessing mobility through help with parking

What is the Blue Badge scheme?

The Blue Badge Scheme provides a national range of parking concessions for disabled people with severe mobility problems who have difficulty using public transport. The scheme is designed to help severely disabled people to travel independently, as either a driver or passenger, by allowing them to park close to their destination. There are strict rules governing the use of your badge.


On 14 February 2011 The Government announced a major programme of reforms to the Blue Badge scheme. These measures have been implemented to help ensure that disabled people have fair and equal access to the benefits the concession offers regardless of where they live, and to address current problems in relation to abuse and misuse of badges.

(See link): National Blue Badge Reform

Where can Blue Badge holders park?

The Blue Badge scheme only applies to on-street parking. Badge holders have free use of parking meters and pay-and-display bays. They may also be exempt from limits on parking times imposed on other users (check local signs for information) and can park for up to three hours on yellow lines (except where there is a ban on loading or unloading or other restrictions).

The scheme does not apply to off-street car parks, such as supermarket car parks, or privately-owned roads, such as those you find at airports.

More information is available from the Department for Transport.

The Blue Badge Scheme helps you park closer to your destination. Apply for a blue badge.

The White Badge scheme only applies to Central London and you should contact the local authority you will be visiting.

Applying for a disabled person's concessionary bus pass

England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all have different national schemes to provide free or concessionary travel.




Northern Ireland